When output of one DCTL gate drives several base terminals of other DCTL gates, the transistor with lowest B-E junction voltage will go into saturation first. This prevents other transistors to turn on or go into saturation. This phenomena is known as Current Hogging.


In this video, I talked about the basic of reciprocity theorem and solved a numerical example. Reciprocity is a property of electrical networks. The reciprocity theorem relates the source and the response in a network. The theorem has limitations and it cannot be applied to all networks.


In this video I explained the integrator circuit where the output voltage is equal to the integral of the input voltage.This video shows the derivation of output voltage of an operational amplifier integrator circuit.


Topics Covered: - a dc circuit is solved using maximum power transfer theorem


Topics Covered: - Construction of IIL inverter circuit - Logic Operation of integrated Injection inverter


Topics Covered: - Definition of Differentiator - Output Voltage Derivation


In this video, the operation of diode OR gate is described for every possible bit combinations.


Open loop connection implies that there will be no direct connection between output and any of the input terminals. If input is applied only one terminal that is know as open loop single input mode whereas if we apply inputs at both terminals is known as differential or double ended mode. inverting mode will invert the voltage at the output terminal and in non-inverting mode output and input will in same phase.


Thevenin's Theorem. Any combination of batteries and resistances with two terminals can be replaced by a single voltage source Vth and a single series resistor Rth. In this video, I showed an example of Thevenin equivalent circuit in step by step manner


Following Topics are covered: - Supernode introduction - Steps to analyze a circuit using supernode - Circuit example using supernode


In this video, I have described the operation of RTL NOR Gate


Source transformation is the process of simplifying a circuit solution, especially with mixed sources, by transforming voltage sources into current sources, and vice versa.[1] This method is used to simplify complex circuits, which may be otherwise difficult to solve by hand. Source transformation is an application of Thévenin's theorem and Norton's theorem. - Source transformation example Reference : - Fundamentals of Electric circuit (Alexander and Sadiku) Third Edition , Practice Problem - 46.


Topics Covered: - Transistor Transistor Logic Inverter with totem pole structure - Logical Operation of TTL inverter circuit


Millmans Theorem, Millmans Theorem Example, Millman Theorem formula


Norton Theorem States that any linear bilateral network can be reduced to a single current source and a resistance in parallel with it. Here, a circuit is solved for Norton Equivalent Circuit


This video deals with a dependent source circuit, which is reduced to Thevenin equivalent circuit.


In this video, I showed how to reduce a circuit to a Norton equivalent circuit in a step by step manner.


Topics Covered: - Definition and Origin of Diffusion capacitance - Equations of Diffusion Capacitance


Astable multivibrator has no stable state. Alternate switching of the transistor produces square waveform in the output of this astable multivbrator


Topic Covered: - Basic of diode series circuit - Three Diode Circuit Examples with simulation


This video shows details of rms value calculation of an alternating quantity. this is the second example of rms value calculation.


This video shows details of rms value calculation of an alternating quantity. This is the third example of rms value


Topics Covered: - Instrumentation Amplifier - Derivation of Output Voltage - Operational amplifier instrumentation amplifier.


In this video, at first monostable mulivibrator is introduced, after that details operation of monostable multivibator is explained


Topics Covered: - Basic of Integrated Injection Logic -Features of IIL


Combination or dual clipper circuit is formed by one biased positive clipper and one biased negative clipper circuit


Topics Covered: - Superposition theorem in case of AC circuit - An AC circuit is solved using superposition theorem


This video covers basic of clipper circuit, classification of clipper circuit, operation of positive and negative - series and shunt clipper circuits / clipping circuits.


In nodal analysis method , we calculate the unknown node voltages with respect to a reference voltage by applying KCL equations. After calculating node voltages, we calculate current through each resistor using Ohm's law.


Virtual Ground in an OP-AMP is a phenomenon in which one of the input terminals will have zero terminal voltage altough that terminal is not connected to ground terminal. - Simulation of circuit


In this video, I discuss about superposition theorem and its aspects


Power Dissipation is the power consumed by the logic gate to perform logical operation.Speed-Power Product is the product of propagation delay in seconds and power dissipation in watts (joules per second)


In this video, I discuss the construction and operation of DCTL NAND gate


When we have an independent source connected between two non-reference node, the two node will be merged to form supernode. In this video, details of this method is covered and a circuit is solved using this method.


Topics Covered: - Concept of nodal analysis for AC circuit - Steps for solving ac circuit using nodal analysis - Complete solution of the circuit using nodal analysis


In this video, I have shown a relatively harder problem of average value of alternating quantity


A dc circuit is solved using maximum power transfer theorem.


Thevenin's Theorem. Any combination of batteries and resistances with two terminals can be replaced by a single voltage source Vth and a single series resistor Rth. In this video, I showed an example of Thevenin equivalent circuit in step by step manner.


Mesh analysis (or the mesh current method) is a method that is used to calculate the mesh or loop currents in a circuit.


Common mode rejection ratio is defined by the ratio of differential voltage gain to common mode voltage gain. Differential voltage gain is the ratio of output voltage to differential input voltage. This video explains how to find out CMRR from given circuits


This video deals with a dependent source circuit, which is reduced to Norton equivalent circuit. This circuit is collected from following handout of Prof. Kim and Eung :-


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